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unix.c

/*
 * unix.c - The unix-specific code for e2fsck
 * 
 * Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 Theodore Ts'o.
 *
 * %Begin-Header%
 * This file may be redistributed under the terms of the GNU Public
 * License.
 * %End-Header%
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#ifdef HAVE_STDLIB_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <time.h>
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
#include <signal.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_GETOPT_H
#include <getopt.h>
#else
extern char *optarg;
extern int optind;
#endif
#include <unistd.h>
#ifdef HAVE_ERRNO_H
#include <errno.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_MNTENT_H
#include <mntent.h>
#endif
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <malloc.h>

#include "et/com_err.h"
#include "e2fsck.h"
#include "problem.h"
#include "../version.h"

/* Command line options */
static int swapfs = 0;
static int normalize_swapfs = 0;
static int cflag = 0;         /* check disk */
static int show_version_only = 0;
static int verbose = 0;

static int replace_bad_blocks = 0;
static char *bad_blocks_file = 0;

static int possible_block_sizes[] = { 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 0};

static int root_filesystem = 0;
static int read_only_root = 0;

e2fsck_t e2fsck_global_ctx;   /* Try your very best not to use this! */

static void usage(e2fsck_t ctx)
{
      fprintf(stderr,
            _("Usage: %s [-panyrcdfvstFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize]\n"
            "\t\t[-I inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size]\n"
            "\t\t[-l|-L bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j ext-journal] device\n"),
            ctx->program_name);

      fprintf(stderr, _("\nEmergency help:\n"
            " -p                   Automatic repair (no questions)\n"
            " -n                   Make no changes to the filesystem\n"
            " -y                   Assume \"yes\" to all questions\n"
            " -c                   Check for bad blocks\n"
            " -f                   Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean\n"));
      fprintf(stderr, _(""
            " -v                   Be verbose\n"
            " -b superblock        Use alternative superblock\n"
            " -B blocksize         Force blocksize when looking for superblock\n"
            " -j external-journal  Set location of the external journal\n"
            " -l bad_blocks_file   Add to badblocks list\n"
            " -L bad_blocks_file   Set badblocks list\n"
            ));

      exit(FSCK_USAGE);
}

static void show_stats(e2fsck_t     ctx)
{
      ext2_filsys fs = ctx->fs;
      int inodes, inodes_used, blocks, blocks_used;
      int dir_links;
      int num_files, num_links;
      int frag_percent;

      dir_links = 2 * ctx->fs_directory_count - 1;
      num_files = ctx->fs_total_count - dir_links;
      num_links = ctx->fs_links_count - dir_links;
      inodes = fs->super->s_inodes_count;
      inodes_used = (fs->super->s_inodes_count -
                   fs->super->s_free_inodes_count);
      blocks = fs->super->s_blocks_count;
      blocks_used = (fs->super->s_blocks_count -
                   fs->super->s_free_blocks_count);

      frag_percent = (10000 * ctx->fs_fragmented) / inodes_used;
      frag_percent = (frag_percent + 5) / 10;
      
      if (!verbose) {
            printf(_("%s: %d/%d files (%0d.%d%% non-contiguous), %d/%d blocks\n"),
                   ctx->device_name, inodes_used, inodes,
                   frag_percent / 10, frag_percent % 10,
                   blocks_used, blocks);
            return;
      }
      /*
       * This is a bit ugly. But I think there will nearly always be more
       * than one "thing" to report about, so I won't try writing complex
       * code to handle one/two/many forms of all words.
       * Some languages (Italian, at least) never uses the plural form
       * of foreign words, so in real life this could not be a problem.
       * md@linux.it - 2000-1-15
       */
#ifdef ENABLE_NLS
      printf (_("\n%8d inodes used (%d%%)\n"), inodes_used,
            (inodes_used != 1), 100 * inodes_used / inodes);
      printf (_("%8d non-contiguous inodes (%0d.%d%%)\n"),
            ctx->fs_fragmented, frag_percent / 10, frag_percent % 10);
      printf (_("         # of inodes with ind/dind/tind blocks: %d/%d/%d\n"),
            ctx->fs_ind_count, ctx->fs_dind_count, ctx->fs_tind_count);
      printf (_("%8d blocks used (%d%%)\n"
            "%8d bad blocks\n"), blocks_used,
            (int) ((long long) 100 * blocks_used / blocks),
            ctx->fs_badblocks_count);
      printf(_("%8d large files\n"), ctx->large_files);
      printf (_("\n%8d regular files\n"
            "%8d directories\n"
            "%8d character device files\n"
            "%8d block device files\n"
            "%8d fifos\n"
            "%8d links\n"
            "%8d symbolic links (%d fast symbolic links)\n"
            "%8d sockets\n"
            "--------\n"
            "%8d files\n"),
            ctx->fs_regular_count,
            ctx->fs_directory_count,
            ctx->fs_chardev_count,
            ctx->fs_blockdev_count,
            ctx->fs_fifo_count,
            ctx->fs_links_count - dir_links,
            ctx->fs_symlinks_count,
            ctx->fs_fast_symlinks_count,
            ctx->fs_sockets_count,
            ctx->fs_total_count - dir_links);
#else
      printf ("\n%8d inode%s used (%d%%)\n", inodes_used,
            (inodes_used != 1) ? "s" : "",
            100 * inodes_used / inodes);
      printf ("%8d non-contiguous inodes (%0d.%d%%)\n",
            ctx->fs_fragmented, frag_percent / 10, frag_percent % 10);
      printf ("         # of inodes with ind/dind/tind blocks: %d/%d/%d\n",
            ctx->fs_ind_count, ctx->fs_dind_count, ctx->fs_tind_count);
      printf ("%8d block%s used (%d%%)\n"
            "%8d bad block%s\n", blocks_used,
            (blocks_used != 1) ? "s" : "",
            100 * blocks_used / blocks, ctx->fs_badblocks_count,
            ctx->fs_badblocks_count != 1 ? "s" : "");
      printf(_("%8d large file%s\n"), ctx->large_files,
             (ctx->large_files != 1) ? "s" : "");
      printf ("\n%8d regular file%s\n"
            "%8d director%s\n"
            "%8d character device file%s\n"
            "%8d block device file%s\n"
            "%8d fifo%s\n"
            "%8d link%s\n"
            "%8d symbolic link%s (%d fast symbolic link%s)\n"
            "%8d socket%s\n"
            "--------\n"
            "%8d file%s\n",
            ctx->fs_regular_count,
            (ctx->fs_regular_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_directory_count,
            (ctx->fs_directory_count != 1) ? "ies" : "y",
            ctx->fs_chardev_count,
            (ctx->fs_chardev_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_blockdev_count,
            (ctx->fs_blockdev_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_fifo_count,
            (ctx->fs_fifo_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_links_count - dir_links,
            ((ctx->fs_links_count - dir_links) != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_symlinks_count,
            (ctx->fs_symlinks_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_fast_symlinks_count,
            (ctx->fs_fast_symlinks_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_sockets_count, (ctx->fs_sockets_count != 1) ? "s" : "",
            ctx->fs_total_count - dir_links,
            ((ctx->fs_total_count - dir_links) != 1) ? "s" : "");
#endif
}

static void check_mount(e2fsck_t ctx)
{
      errcode_t   retval;
      int         mount_flags, cont;

      retval = ext2fs_check_if_mounted(ctx->filesystem_name, &mount_flags);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("ext2fs_check_if_mount", retval,
                  _("while determining whether %s is mounted."),
                  ctx->filesystem_name);
            return;
      }

      /*
       * If the filesystem isn't mounted, or it's the root filesystem
       * and it's mounted read-only, then everything's fine.
       */
      if ((!(mount_flags & EXT2_MF_MOUNTED)) ||
          ((mount_flags & EXT2_MF_ISROOT) &&
           (mount_flags & EXT2_MF_READONLY)))
            return;

      if (ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY) {
            printf(_("Warning!  %s is mounted.\n"), ctx->filesystem_name);
            return;
      }

      printf(_("%s is mounted.  "), ctx->filesystem_name);
      if (!isatty(0) || !isatty(1))
            fatal_error(ctx, _("Cannot continue, aborting.\n\n"));
      printf(_("\n\n\007\007\007\007WARNING!!!  "
             "Running e2fsck on a mounted filesystem may cause\n"
             "SEVERE filesystem damage.\007\007\007\n\n"));
      cont = ask_yn(_("Do you really want to continue"), -1);
      if (!cont) {
            printf (_("check aborted.\n"));
            exit (0);
      }
      return;
}

/*
 * This routine checks to see if a filesystem can be skipped; if so,
 * it will exit with E2FSCK_OK.  Under some conditions it will print a
 * message explaining why a check is being forced.
 */
static void check_if_skip(e2fsck_t ctx)
{
      ext2_filsys fs = ctx->fs;
      const char *reason = NULL;
      unsigned int reason_arg = 0;
      
      if ((ctx->options & E2F_OPT_FORCE) || bad_blocks_file ||
          cflag || swapfs)
            return;
      
      if (fs->super->s_state & EXT2_ERROR_FS)
            reason = _(" contains a file system with errors");
      else if ((fs->super->s_state & EXT2_VALID_FS) == 0)
            reason = _(" was not cleanly unmounted");
      else if ((fs->super->s_max_mnt_count > 0) &&
             (fs->super->s_mnt_count >=
              (unsigned) fs->super->s_max_mnt_count)) {
            reason = _(" has been mounted %u times without being checked");
            reason_arg = fs->super->s_mnt_count;
      } else if (fs->super->s_checkinterval &&
             time(0) >= (fs->super->s_lastcheck +
                       fs->super->s_checkinterval)) {
            reason = _(" has gone %u days without being checked");
            reason_arg = (time(0) - fs->super->s_lastcheck)/(3600*24);
      }
      if (reason) {
            fputs(ctx->device_name, stdout);
            printf(reason, reason_arg);
            fputs(_(", check forced.\n"), stdout);
            return;
      }
      printf(_("%s: clean, %d/%d files, %d/%d blocks\n"), ctx->device_name,
             fs->super->s_inodes_count - fs->super->s_free_inodes_count,
             fs->super->s_inodes_count,
             fs->super->s_blocks_count - fs->super->s_free_blocks_count,
             fs->super->s_blocks_count);
      ext2fs_close(fs);
      ctx->fs = NULL;
      e2fsck_free_context(ctx);
      exit(FSCK_OK);
}

/*
 * For completion notice
 */
struct percent_tbl {
      int   max_pass;
      int   table[32];
};
struct percent_tbl e2fsck_tbl = {
      5, { 0, 70, 90, 92,  95, 100 }
};
static char bar[] =
      "==============================================================="
      "===============================================================";
static char spaces[] =
      "                                                               "
      "                                                               ";

static float calc_percent(struct percent_tbl *tbl, int pass, int curr,
                    int max)
{
      float percent;
      
      if (pass <= 0)
            return 0.0;
      if (pass > tbl->max_pass || max == 0)
            return 100.0;
      percent = ((float) curr) / ((float) max);
      return ((percent * (tbl->table[pass] - tbl->table[pass-1]))
            + tbl->table[pass-1]);
}

extern void e2fsck_clear_progbar(e2fsck_t ctx)
{
      if (!(ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_PROG_BAR))
            return;
      
      printf("%s\r", spaces + (sizeof(spaces) - 80));
      ctx->flags &= ~E2F_FLAG_PROG_BAR;
}

static int e2fsck_update_progress(e2fsck_t ctx, int pass,
                          unsigned long cur, unsigned long max)
{
      static const char spinner[] = "\\|/-";
      char buf[80];
      int   i;
      float percent;
      int   tick;
      struct timeval    tv;
      static int dpywidth = 0;

      if (pass == 0)
            return 0;
      
      if (ctx->progress_fd) {
            sprintf(buf, "%d %lu %lu\n", pass, cur, max);
            write(ctx->progress_fd, buf, strlen(buf));
      } else {
            if (ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_PROG_SUPPRESS)
                  return 0;
            if (dpywidth == 0) {
                  dpywidth = 66 - strlen(ctx->device_name);
                  dpywidth = 8 * (dpywidth / 8);
            }
            /*
             * Calculate the new progress position.  If the
             * percentage hasn't changed, then we skip out right
             * away. 
             */
            percent = calc_percent(&e2fsck_tbl, pass, cur, max);
            if (ctx->progress_last_percent == (int) 10 * percent)
                  return 0;
            ctx->progress_last_percent = (int) 10 * percent;

            /*
             * If we've already updated the spinner once within
             * the last 1/8th of a second, no point doing it
             * again.
             */
            gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
            tick = (tv.tv_sec << 3) + (tv.tv_usec / (1000000 / 8));
            if ((tick == ctx->progress_last_time) &&
                (cur != max) && (cur != 0))
                  return 0;
            ctx->progress_last_time = tick;

            /*
             * Advance the spinner, and note that the progress bar
             * will be on the screen
             */
            ctx->progress_pos = (ctx->progress_pos+1) & 3;
            ctx->flags |= E2F_FLAG_PROG_BAR;
            
            i = ((percent * dpywidth) + 50) / 100;
            printf("%s: |%s%s", ctx->device_name,
                   bar + (sizeof(bar) - (i+1)),
                   spaces + (sizeof(spaces) - (dpywidth - i + 1)));
            if (percent == 100.0)
                  fputc('|', stdout);
            else
                  fputc(spinner[ctx->progress_pos & 3], stdout);
            printf(" %4.1f%%   \r", percent);
            if (percent == 100.0)
                  e2fsck_clear_progbar(ctx);
            fflush(stdout);
      }
      return 0;
}

#define PATH_SET "PATH=/sbin"

static void reserve_stdio_fds(void)
{
      int   fd;

      while (1) {
            fd = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR);
            if (fd > 2)
                  break;
            if (fd < 0) {
                  fprintf(stderr, _("ERROR: Couldn't open "
                        "/dev/null (%s)\n"),
                        strerror(errno));
                  break;
            }
      }
      close(fd);
}

#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
static void signal_progress_on(int sig)
{
      e2fsck_t ctx = e2fsck_global_ctx;

      if (!ctx)
            return;

      ctx->progress = e2fsck_update_progress;
      ctx->progress_fd = 0;
}

static void signal_progress_off(int sig)
{
      e2fsck_t ctx = e2fsck_global_ctx;

      if (!ctx)
            return;

      e2fsck_clear_progbar(ctx);
      ctx->progress = 0;
}
#endif

static errcode_t PRS(int argc, char *argv[], e2fsck_t *ret_ctx)
{
      int         flush = 0;
      int         c, fd;
#ifdef MTRACE
      extern void *mallwatch;
#endif
      e2fsck_t    ctx;
      errcode_t   retval;
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
      struct sigaction  sa;
#endif

      retval = e2fsck_allocate_context(&ctx);
      if (retval)
            return retval;

      *ret_ctx = ctx;

      setbuf(stdout, NULL);
      setbuf(stderr, NULL);
      initialize_ext2_error_table();
      
      if (argc && *argv)
            ctx->program_name = *argv;
      else
            ctx->program_name = "e2fsck";
      while ((c = getopt (argc, argv, "panyrcC:B:dfvtFVM:b:I:j:P:l:L:N:Ss")) != EOF)
            switch (c) {
            case 'C':
                  ctx->progress = e2fsck_update_progress;
                  ctx->progress_fd = atoi(optarg);
                  if (!ctx->progress_fd)
                        break;
                  /* Validate the file descriptor to avoid disasters */
                  fd = dup(ctx->progress_fd);
                  if (fd < 0) {
                        fprintf(stderr,
                        _("Error validating file descriptor %d: %s\n"),
                              ctx->progress_fd,
                              error_message(errno));
                        fatal_error(ctx,
                  _("Invalid completion information file descriptor"));
                  } else
                        close(fd);
                  break;
            case 'p':
            case 'a':
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_PREEN;
                  ctx->options &= ~(E2F_OPT_YES|E2F_OPT_NO);
                  break;
            case 'n':
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_NO;
                  ctx->options &= ~(E2F_OPT_YES|E2F_OPT_PREEN);
                  break;
            case 'y':
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_YES;
                  ctx->options &= ~(E2F_OPT_PREEN|E2F_OPT_NO);
                  break;
            case 't':
#ifdef RESOURCE_TRACK
                  if (ctx->options & E2F_OPT_TIME)
                        ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_TIME2;
                  else
                        ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_TIME;
#else
                  fprintf(stderr, _("The -t option is not "
                        "supported on this version of e2fsck.\n"));
#endif
                  break;
            case 'c':
                  if (cflag++)
                        ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_WRITECHECK;
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_CHECKBLOCKS;
                  break;
            case 'r':
                  /* What we do by default, anyway! */
                  break;
            case 'b':
                  ctx->use_superblock = atoi(optarg);
                  ctx->flags |= E2F_FLAG_SB_SPECIFIED;
                  break;
            case 'B':
                  ctx->blocksize = atoi(optarg);
                  break;
            case 'I':
                  ctx->inode_buffer_blocks = atoi(optarg);
                  break;
            case 'j':
                  ctx->journal_name = optarg;
                  break;
            case 'P':
                  ctx->process_inode_size = atoi(optarg);
                  break;
            case 'L':
                  replace_bad_blocks++;
            case 'l':
                  bad_blocks_file = (char *) malloc(strlen(optarg)+1);
                  if (!bad_blocks_file)
                        fatal_error(ctx,
                                  "Couldn't malloc bad_blocks_file");
                  strcpy(bad_blocks_file, optarg);
                  break;
            case 'd':
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_DEBUG;
                  break;
            case 'f':
                  ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_FORCE;
                  break;
            case 'F':
                  flush = 1;
                  break;
            case 'v':
                  verbose = 1;
                  break;
            case 'V':
                  show_version_only = 1;
                  break;
#ifdef MTRACE
            case 'M':
                  mallwatch = (void *) strtol(optarg, NULL, 0);
                  break;
#endif
            case 'N':
                  ctx->device_name = optarg;
                  break;
#ifdef ENABLE_SWAPFS
            case 's':
                  normalize_swapfs = 1;
            case 'S':
                  swapfs = 1;
                  break;
#else
            case 's':
            case 'S':
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Byte-swapping filesystems "
                                "not compiled in this version "
                                "of e2fsck\n"));
                  exit(1);
#endif
            default:
                  usage(ctx);
            }
      if (show_version_only)
            return 0;
      if (optind != argc - 1)
            usage(ctx);
      if ((ctx->options & E2F_OPT_NO) && !bad_blocks_file &&
          !cflag && !swapfs)
            ctx->options |= E2F_OPT_READONLY;
      ctx->filesystem_name = argv[optind];
      if (flush) {
            fd = open(ctx->filesystem_name, O_RDONLY, 0);
            if (fd < 0) {
                  com_err("open", errno,
                        _("while opening %s for flushing"),
                        ctx->filesystem_name);
                  fatal_error(ctx, 0);
            }
            if ((retval = ext2fs_sync_device(fd, 1))) {
                  com_err("ext2fs_sync_device", retval,
                        _("while trying to flush %s"),
                        ctx->filesystem_name);
                  fatal_error(ctx, 0);
            }
            close(fd);
      }
#ifdef ENABLE_SWAPFS
      if (swapfs) {
            if (cflag || bad_blocks_file) {
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Incompatible options not "
                                "allowed when byte-swapping.\n"));
                  exit(FSCK_USAGE);
            }
      }
#endif
      if (cflag && bad_blocks_file) {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The -c and the -l/-L options may "
                          "not be both used at the same time.\n"));
            exit(FSCK_USAGE);
      }
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
      /*
       * Set up signal action
       */
      memset(&sa, 0, sizeof(struct sigaction));
#ifdef SA_RESTART
      sa.sa_flags = SA_RESTART;
#endif
      e2fsck_global_ctx = ctx;
      sa.sa_handler = signal_progress_on;
      sigaction(SIGUSR1, &sa, 0);
      sa.sa_handler = signal_progress_off;
      sigaction(SIGUSR2, &sa, 0);
#endif

      /* Update our PATH to include /sbin if we need to run badblocks  */
      if (cflag) {
            char *oldpath = getenv("PATH");
            if (oldpath) {
                  char *newpath;

                  newpath = (char *) malloc(sizeof (PATH_SET) + 1 +
                                      strlen (oldpath));
                  if (!newpath)
                        fatal_error(ctx, "Couldn't malloc() newpath");
                  strcpy (newpath, PATH_SET);
                  strcat (newpath, ":");
                  strcat (newpath, oldpath);
                  putenv (newpath);
            } else
                  putenv (PATH_SET);
      }
      return 0;
}

static const char *my_ver_string = E2FSPROGS_VERSION;
static const char *my_ver_date = E2FSPROGS_DATE;
                              
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
      errcode_t   retval = 0;
      int         exit_value = FSCK_OK;
      int         i;
      ext2_filsys fs = 0;
      io_manager  io_ptr;
      struct ext2_super_block *sb;
      const char  *lib_ver_date;
      int         my_ver, lib_ver;
      e2fsck_t    ctx;
      struct problem_context pctx;
      int flags, run_result;
      
      clear_problem_context(&pctx);
#ifdef MTRACE
      mtrace();
#endif
#ifdef MCHECK
      mcheck(0);
#endif
#ifdef ENABLE_NLS
      setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, "");
      setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");
      bindtextdomain(NLS_CAT_NAME, LOCALEDIR);
      textdomain(NLS_CAT_NAME);
#endif
      my_ver = ext2fs_parse_version_string(my_ver_string);
      lib_ver = ext2fs_get_library_version(0, &lib_ver_date);
      if (my_ver > lib_ver) {
            fprintf( stderr, _("Error: ext2fs library version "
                  "out of date!\n"));
            show_version_only++;
      }
      
      retval = PRS(argc, argv, &ctx);
      if (retval) {
            com_err("e2fsck", retval,
                  _("while trying to initialize program"));
            exit(FSCK_ERROR);
      }
      reserve_stdio_fds();
      
#ifdef RESOURCE_TRACK
      init_resource_track(&ctx->global_rtrack);
#endif

      if (!(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_PREEN) || show_version_only)
            fprintf (stderr, "e2fsck %s (%s)\n", my_ver_string,
                   my_ver_date);

      if (show_version_only) {
            fprintf(stderr, _("\tUsing %s, %s\n"),
                  error_message(EXT2_ET_BASE), lib_ver_date);
            exit(FSCK_OK);
      }
      
      check_mount(ctx);
      
      if (!(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_PREEN) &&
          !(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_NO) &&
          !(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_YES)) {
            if (!isatty (0) || !isatty (1))
                  fatal_error(ctx,
                            _("need terminal for interactive repairs"));
      }
      ctx->superblock = ctx->use_superblock;
restart:
#if 1
      io_ptr = unix_io_manager;
#else
      io_ptr = test_io_manager;
      test_io_backing_manager = unix_io_manager;
#endif
      flags = 0;
      if ((ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY) == 0)
            flags |= EXT2_FLAG_RW;

      if (ctx->superblock && ctx->blocksize) {
            retval = ext2fs_open(ctx->filesystem_name, flags,
                             ctx->superblock, ctx->blocksize,
                             io_ptr, &fs);
      } else if (ctx->superblock) {
            for (i=0; possible_block_sizes[i]; i++) {
                  retval = ext2fs_open(ctx->filesystem_name, flags,
                                   ctx->superblock,
                                   possible_block_sizes[i],
                                   io_ptr, &fs);
                  if (!retval)
                        break;
            }
      } else 
            retval = ext2fs_open(ctx->filesystem_name, flags, 
                             0, 0, io_ptr, &fs);
      if (!ctx->superblock && !(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_PREEN) &&
          !(ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_SB_SPECIFIED) &&
          ((retval == EXT2_ET_BAD_MAGIC) ||
           ((retval == 0) && ext2fs_check_desc(fs)))) {
            if (!fs || (fs->group_desc_count > 1)) {
                  printf(_("%s trying backup blocks...\n"),
                         retval ? _("Couldn't find ext2 superblock,") :
                         _("Group descriptors look bad..."));
                  get_backup_sb(ctx, fs, ctx->filesystem_name, io_ptr);
                  if (fs)
                        ext2fs_close(fs);
                  goto restart;
            }
      }
      if (retval) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, retval, _("while trying to open %s"),
                  ctx->filesystem_name);
            if (retval == EXT2_ET_REV_TOO_HIGH) {
                  printf(_("The filesystem revision is apparently "
                         "too high for this version of e2fsck.\n"
                         "(Or the filesystem superblock "
                         "is corrupt)\n\n"));
                  fix_problem(ctx, PR_0_SB_CORRUPT, &pctx);
            } else if (retval == EXT2_ET_SHORT_READ)
                  printf(_("Could this be a zero-length partition?\n"));
            else if ((retval == EPERM) || (retval == EACCES))
                  printf(_("You must have %s access to the "
                         "filesystem or be root\n"),
                         (ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY) ?
                         "r/o" : "r/w");
            else if (retval == ENXIO)
                  printf(_("Possibly non-existent or swap device?\n"));
#ifdef EROFS
            else if (retval == EROFS)
                  printf(_("Disk write-protected; use the -n option "
                         "to do a read-only\n"
                         "check of the device.\n"));
#endif
            else
                  fix_problem(ctx, PR_0_SB_CORRUPT, &pctx);
            fatal_error(ctx, 0);
      }
      ctx->fs = fs;
      fs->priv_data = ctx;
      sb = fs->super;
      if (sb->s_rev_level > E2FSCK_CURRENT_REV) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, EXT2_ET_REV_TOO_HIGH,
                  _("while trying to open %s"),
                  ctx->filesystem_name);
      get_newer:
            fatal_error(ctx, _("Get a newer version of e2fsck!"));
      }

      /*
       * Set the device name, which is used whenever we print error
       * or informational messages to the user.
       */
      if (ctx->device_name == 0 &&
          (sb->s_volume_name[0] != 0)) {
            char *cp = malloc(sizeof(sb->s_volume_name)+1);
            if (cp) {
                  strncpy(cp, sb->s_volume_name,
                        sizeof(sb->s_volume_name));
                  cp[sizeof(sb->s_volume_name)] = 0;
                  ctx->device_name = cp;
            }
      }
      if (ctx->device_name == 0)
            ctx->device_name = ctx->filesystem_name;

      /*
       * Make sure the ext3 superblock fields are consistent.
       */
      retval = e2fsck_check_ext3_journal(ctx);
      if (retval) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, retval,
                  _("while checking ext3 journal for %s"),
                  ctx->device_name);
            fatal_error(ctx, 0);
      }

      /*
       * Check to see if we need to do ext3-style recovery.  If so,
       * do it, and then restart the fsck.
       */
      if (sb->s_feature_incompat & EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_RECOVER) {
            if (ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY) {
                  printf(_("Warning: skipping journal recovery "
                         "because doing a read-only filesystem "
                         "check.\n"));
                  io_channel_flush(ctx->fs->io);
            } else {
                  retval = e2fsck_run_ext3_journal(ctx);
                  if (retval) {
                        com_err(ctx->program_name, retval,
                        _("while recovering ext3 journal of %s"),
                              ctx->device_name);
                        fatal_error(ctx, 0);
                  }
                  ext2fs_close(ctx->fs);
                  ctx->fs = 0;
                  goto restart;
            }
      }

      /*
       * Check for compatibility with the feature sets.  We need to
       * be more stringent than ext2fs_open().
       */
      if ((sb->s_feature_compat & ~EXT2_LIB_FEATURE_COMPAT_SUPP) ||
          (sb->s_feature_incompat & ~EXT2_LIB_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_SUPP)) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, EXT2_ET_UNSUPP_FEATURE,
                  "(%s)", ctx->device_name);
            goto get_newer;
      }
      if (sb->s_feature_ro_compat & ~EXT2_LIB_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_SUPP) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, EXT2_ET_RO_UNSUPP_FEATURE,
                  "(%s)", ctx->device_name);
            goto get_newer;
      }
#ifdef ENABLE_COMPRESSION
      if (sb->s_feature_incompat & EXT2_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_COMPRESSION)
            com_err(ctx->program_name, 0,
                  _("Warning: compression support is experimental.\n"));
#endif
      
      /*
       * If the user specified a specific superblock, presumably the
       * master superblock has been trashed.  So we mark the
       * superblock as dirty, so it can be written out.
       */
      if (ctx->superblock &&
          !(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY))
            ext2fs_mark_super_dirty(fs);

      /*
       * Don't overwrite the backup superblock and block
       * descriptors, until we're sure the filesystem is OK....
       */
      fs->flags |= EXT2_FLAG_MASTER_SB_ONLY;

      ehandler_init(fs->io);

      if (ctx->superblock)
            set_latch_flags(PR_LATCH_RELOC, PRL_LATCHED, 0);
      check_super_block(ctx);
      if (ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_SIGNAL_MASK)
            fatal_error(ctx, 0);
      check_if_skip(ctx);
      if (bad_blocks_file)
            read_bad_blocks_file(ctx, bad_blocks_file, replace_bad_blocks);
      else if (cflag)
            test_disk(ctx);
      if (ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_SIGNAL_MASK)
            fatal_error(ctx, 0);
#ifdef ENABLE_SWAPFS
      if (normalize_swapfs) {
            if ((fs->flags & EXT2_FLAG_SWAP_BYTES) ==
                ext2fs_native_flag()) {
                  fprintf(stderr, _("%s: Filesystem byte order "
                        "already normalized.\n"), ctx->device_name);
                  fatal_error(ctx, 0);
            }
      }
      if (swapfs) {
            swap_filesys(ctx);
            if (ctx->flags & E2F_FLAG_SIGNAL_MASK)
                  fatal_error(ctx, 0);
      }
#endif

      /*
       * Mark the system as valid, 'til proven otherwise
       */
      ext2fs_mark_valid(fs);

      retval = ext2fs_read_bb_inode(fs, &fs->badblocks);
      if (retval) {
            com_err(ctx->program_name, retval,
                  _("while reading bad blocks inode"));
            preenhalt(ctx);
            printf(_("This doesn't bode well,"
                   " but we'll try to go on...\n"));
      }

      run_result = e2fsck_run(ctx);
      e2fsck_clear_progbar(ctx);
      if (run_result == E2F_FLAG_RESTART) {
            printf(_("Restarting e2fsck from the beginning...\n"));
            retval = e2fsck_reset_context(ctx);
            if (retval) {
                  com_err(ctx->program_name, retval,
                        _("while resetting context"));
                  fatal_error(ctx, 0);
            }
            ext2fs_close(fs);
            goto restart;
      }
      if (run_result & E2F_FLAG_SIGNAL_MASK)
            fatal_error(ctx, 0);
      if (run_result & E2F_FLAG_CANCEL)
            ext2fs_unmark_valid(fs);

#ifdef MTRACE
      mtrace_print("Cleanup");
#endif
      if (ext2fs_test_changed(fs)) {
            exit_value = FSCK_NONDESTRUCT;
            if (!(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_PREEN))
                printf(_("\n%s: ***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****\n"),
                         ctx->device_name);
            if (root_filesystem && !read_only_root) {
                  printf(_("%s: ***** REBOOT LINUX *****\n"),
                         ctx->device_name);
                  exit_value = FSCK_REBOOT;
            }
      }
      if (ext2fs_test_valid(fs))
            fs->flags &= ~EXT2_FLAG_MASTER_SB_ONLY;
      else {
            printf(_("\n%s: ********** WARNING: Filesystem still has "
                   "errors **********\n\n"), ctx->device_name);
            exit_value = FSCK_UNCORRECTED;
      }
      if (!(ctx->options & E2F_OPT_READONLY)) {
            if (ext2fs_test_valid(fs)) {
                  if (!(sb->s_state & EXT2_VALID_FS))
                        exit_value = FSCK_NONDESTRUCT;
                  sb->s_state = EXT2_VALID_FS;
            } else
                  sb->s_state &= ~EXT2_VALID_FS;
            sb->s_mnt_count = 0;
            sb->s_lastcheck = time(NULL);
            ext2fs_mark_super_dirty(fs);
      }
      show_stats(ctx);

      e2fsck_write_bitmaps(ctx);
      
      ext2fs_close(fs);
      ctx->fs = NULL;
      e2fsck_free_context(ctx);
      
#ifdef RESOURCE_TRACK
      if (ctx->options & E2F_OPT_TIME)
            print_resource_track(NULL, &ctx->global_rtrack);
#endif

      return exit_value;
}

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